Understanding SOLID Design Principles in Go with examples.

Understanding SOLID Design Principles in Go with examples.


4 min read

SOLID is a set of five design principles that promote clean, maintainable, and scalable code. Originating from object-oriented programming, these principles are applicable across various programming paradigms, including Go. In this article, we delve into each SOLID principle and illustrate its relevance and application within Go.

1. Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)

The SRP advocates that a class or function should have only one reason to change. In essence, it should have a single responsibility or encapsulate a single functionality.

In Go, adhering to SRP involves creating small, focused functions and types that handle specific tasks. For instance, segregating database access, business logic, and user interface into distinct packages or structures ensures each entity has a single responsibility.

2. Open/Closed Principle (OCP)

The OCP emphasizes that software entities should be open for extension but closed for modification. It encourages code extension through inheritance or composition without altering existing code.

In Go, leveraging interfaces and polymorphism enables adhering to OCP. By defining interfaces that abstract behavior and allowing various implementations, developers can extend functionalities without modifying existing code. Using interfaces instead of concrete types promotes code extensibility and maintainability.

3. Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)

The LSP asserts that objects of a superclass should be replaceable with objects of its subclass without affecting the correctness of the program. In simpler terms, derived classes must be substitutable for their base classes.

In Go, applying LSP involves ensuring that types implementing interfaces or embedding other types can be used interchangeably without altering the expected behavior. This principle fosters code reuse and flexibility while maintaining correctness.

4. Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)

The ISP advocates for client-specific interfaces rather than having large, monolithic interfaces. It suggests that clients should not be forced to depend on interfaces they do not use.

In Go, designing narrow interfaces that cater to specific client requirements is crucial. Breaking down large interfaces into smaller ones allows clients to implement only the necessary methods, preventing unnecessary dependencies and reducing coupling between components.

5. Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)

The DIP emphasizes high-level modules should not depend on low-level modules; both should depend on abstractions. It promotes dependency injection to decouple components and facilitates testing and flexibility.

In Go, employing interfaces and dependency injection enables adhering to DIP. By designing code to depend on abstractions (interfaces) rather than concrete implementations, it becomes easier to swap dependencies and perform unit testing efficiently.

Applying SOLID Principles in Go

Example: Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)

Consider a user authentication system. Separating user data access, authentication logic, and token generation into distinct functions or types adheres to SRP.

type UserRepository interface {
    FindByEmail(email string) (*User, error)
    Create(user *User) error

func Authenticate(userRepo UserRepository, email, password string) (string, error) {
    // Authentication logic using userRepo

func GenerateToken(userID int) (string, error) {
    // Token generation logic

Example: Open/Closed Principle (OCP)

Utilizing interfaces to extend functionalities without modifying existing code aligns with OCP. Consider a generic printer interface extended by different printer types.

type Printer interface {

type PDFPrinter struct{}

func (p PDFPrinter) Print() {
    // PDF print logic

type TextPrinter struct{}

func (t TextPrinter) Print() {
    // Text print logic

Example: Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)

Ensuring derived types can substitute their base types without altering expected behavior exemplifies LSP. Here, Square is substitutable for Rectangle.

type Rectangle struct {
    Width, Height int

func (r Rectangle) Area() int {
    return r.Width * r.Height

type Square struct {
    Size int

func (s Square) Area() int {
    return s.Size * s.Size

Example: Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)

Designing narrow interfaces specific to client requirements prevents unnecessary dependencies. Here, Order and Invoice have distinct interfaces.

type Order interface {

type Invoice interface {

Example: Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)

Employing interfaces and dependency injection allows adhering to DIP. Here, a high-level module depends on an abstraction (interface).

type Logger interface {
    Log(message string)

type App struct {
    logger Logger

func (a App) DoSomething() {
    // Use a.logger to log messages


The SOLID principles provide guidelines for designing robust, maintainable, and scalable software systems. In Go, these principles enhance code quality, promote flexibility, and facilitate testing and maintainability.

By embracing SOLID principles, developers can create codebases that are easier to understand, extend, and maintain, leading to more resilient and adaptable software solutions.

I hope this helps, you!!

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